Top

Wizards with Hats

There are 2 wizards and each of them has infinitely many hats on his head. Every hat has 50-50 chance to be white or black, and the wizards can see the hats of the other person, but not their own. Each wizard is asked to identify a black hat on his head without looking, and they win if both succeed to guess correctly. If the wizards are allowed to devise a strategy in advance, can they increase their chance of winning to more than 25%?


Each wizard guesses the position of the lowest black hat on the head of the other wizard. Then the chance of winning becomes 1/4 + 1/16 + 1/64 + ... = 1/3. It can be shown that this is an optimal strategy as well.