The Temple of Doom

You and eight of your team members are trying to escape the Temple of Doom. You are running through a tunnel away from a deadly smoke and end up in a large hall. There are four paths ahead, and exactly one of them leads to the exit. It takes 20 minutes to explore any of the four paths one way, and your group has only 60 minutes until the deadly smoke suffocates you. The problem is that two of your friends are known to be delirious and it is possible that they do not tell the truth, but nobody knows which ones they are. How should you split the group and explore the tunnels, so that you have enough time to figure out which is the correct path and escape the temple?

You explore the first path. You send two of your teammates to explore the second path. You send the remaining six teammates in groups of three to explore each of the two remaining paths. If your path leads to the exit, then everything is good. Otherwise, you ask the two groups of three whether their paths lead to the exit. If in both groups everyone answers consistently, then nobody is lying, and you will escape. If in both groups there is a person whose answer is different from the others in the group, then the majority in both groups says the truth. Once again, you will know which path leads to the exit. Finally, if in exactly one of the groups everyone answers consistently, you ask the group of two. If the team members there answer consistently with each other, then they say the truth. You will have two groups which tell the truth and will know which path leads to the exit. If the answers of the teammates in the group of two differ, then in the inconsistent group of three the majority will be saying the truth. Again, you will be able to deduce which path leads to the exit.

Around the World

There is an island on a planet and infinitely many planes on it. You need to make one of these planes fly all around the world and land back to the island. However, each of the planes can carry fuel which is enough to travel just half of the way, and fuel cannot be stored anywhere on the planet, except for the island and in the planes. Assuming the planes can refuel each other mid-air, and all of them must eventually arrive safely back on the island, how many of them do you need to accomplish the task?

3 planes are enough, label them A, B, C. They leave the island simultaneously in a clockwise direction, and after 1/8 of the way, A refuels B and C completely, then turns back towards the island. B and C continue to fly until they get to 1/4 of the way, where B refuels C completely and turns back towards the island. When C gets mid-way, A and B leave the island counter-clockwise, and after 1/8 of the way, A refuels B completely and turns back towards the island. B continues towards C, and when the two planes meet, they share their fuel, then fly together towards the island. In the meantime A arrives on the island, refuels completely, and starts flying again counter-clockwise towards B and C, so that it can meet them and give them enough fuel, so that all of them arrive safely on the island.
It is easy to see that 2 planes are not enough.

Halloween Candies

A mother has 4 children. On Halloween, she decides to give them 200 candies one by one, starting with the youngest child, then the second youngest, third youngest, etc. At some point, they have to interrupt the procedure and eat dinner, but when they continue, nobody remembers which was the last child to get a candy. How can the mother distribute the remaining candies to the kids without starting over again or counting how many candies have been given so far?

The mother can start giving the remaining candies one by one in the reverse order, starting with the oldest child, then the second oldest, etc.