## Shark Attack

A man stands in the center of a circular field which is encompassed by a narrow ring of water. In the water there is a shark which is swimming four times as fast as the man is running. Can the man escape the field and get past the water to safety?

Yes, he can. Let the radius of the field is R and its center I. First the man should start running along a circle with center I and radius R/4. His angular speed will be bigger than the angular speed of the shark, so he can keep running until gets opposite to it with respect to I. Then he should dash away (in a straight line) towards the water. Since he will need to cover approximately 3R/4 distance and the shark will have to cover approximately 3.14R distance, the man will have enough time to escape.

## Gods of Truth

You encounter three Gods in a room – the God of Truth, the God of Lie and the God of Uncertainty. You don’t know which one is which, but know that the God of Truth always says the truth, the God of Lie always says the lie and the God of Uncertainty sometimes lies and sometimes says the truth. You can ask in succession each of the Gods a unique question, to which they can reply only with “Yes” or “No”. However, their responses will be in their native language – “Da” or “Ne”, and you don’t know which translation to which answer corresponds. Your task is to figure out what questions to ask the Gods, so that will recognize which one of them is the God of Truth, which one is the God of Lie and which one is the God of Uncertainty.

Label the gods with numbers – 1, 2, and 3.

First, ask god 1 “If I ask you whether god 2 is random, would you say ‘Da’?”. If he responds “Da”, then god 3 is not the god of uncertainty. If he responds “Ne”, then god 2 is not the god of uncertainty. In both cases we will be able to find a god which is not the god of uncertainty, let without of generality that is god 3.

Next, ask god 3 “If I ask you whether you are the God of Lie, would you say ‘Da’?”. If he says “Da”, then he is the God of Truth. If he says “No”, then he is the God of Lie.

Finally, ask god 3 whether god 1 is the God of Uncertainty and conclude the identities of all gods.

You are walking alone on the sidewalk. There are no stars on the sky, no moonlight, all of the lamps on the street are broken, you don’t carry any source of light with you and there aren’t any cars or other people approaching. A silent black cat tries to cross your way, but you somehow spot it and turn around in order to avoid bad luck. How did you see the cat?

All of this happened during a day (which is cloudy).

## A Short, Brutal Riddle

Left alone, I’m a word with five letters.
I’m honest and fair, I’ll admit.
Rearranged, I’m of no use to trains.
Again, and I’m an overt place, warm and well lit.

What am I?

Source: Puzzling StackExchange

The answer is LIAR. After rearranging the letters, you can get RAIL – important for trains, or LAIR – a dark, hidden place. Since the riddler is a liar, the resulting words are exactly the opposite of his descriptions.

## Optical Illusions

If you count carefully the number of people before the tiles scramble and after that, you will see that one person disappears. Can you explain how this is possible?

Similarly, on this picture it looks like after changing the places of the tiles on the diagram, their total area decreases by one. Can you explain this?

If you look carefully, you will notice that every person on the picture with 12 people is slightly taller than his corresponding person on the picture with 13 people. Basically, we can cut little pieces from 12 different people without making noticeable changes and arrange them into a new person.

For the second question, none of the shapes before and after the scrambling is really a triangle. One of them is a little bit curved in at the hypothenuse and at the other one is a little bit curved out. This is barely noticeable, because the red and the blue triangle have very similar proportions of their sides – 5/2 ~ 7/3.

## David Copperfield

David Copperfield and his assistant perform the following magic trick. The assistant offers to a person from the audience to pick 5 arbitrary cards from a regular deck and then hand them back to him. After the assistant sees the cards, he returns one of them to the audience member and gives the rest one by one to David Copperfield. After the magician receives the fourth card, he correctly guesses what card the audience member holds in his hand. How did they perform the trick?

Out of the five cards there will be (at least) two of the same suit, assume they are clubs. Now imagine all clubs are arranged on a circle in a cyclic manner – A, 2, 3, … J, Q, K (clock-wise), and locate the two chosen ones on it. There are two arks on the circle which are connecting them and exactly one of them will contain X cards, with X between 0 and 5. Now the assistant will pass to David Copperfield first the clubs card which is located on the left end of this ark, will return to the audience member the clubs card which is located on the right end of it and with the remaining three cards will encode the number X. In order to do this, he will arrange the three extra cards in increasing order – first clubs A-K, then diamonds A-K, then hearts A-K and finally spades A-K. Let us call the smallest card under this ordering “1”, the middle one “2” and the largest one “3”. Now depending on the value of X, the assistant will pass the cards “1”, “2” and “3” in the following order:

X=0 -> 1, 2, 3
X=1 -> 1, 3, 2
X=2 -> 2, 1, 3
X=3 -> 2, 3, 1
X=4 -> 3, 1, 2
X=5 -> 3, 2, 1

In this way David Copperfield will know the suit of the audience member’s card and also with what number he should increase the card he received first in order to get value as well. Therefore he will be able to guess correctly.

## Ants on a Stick

On the ground there is a stick and 10 ants standing on top of it. All ants have the same constant speed and each of them can travel along the entire stick in exactly 1 minute (if it is left alone). The ants start moving simultaneously straightforward, either towards the left or the right end of the stick. When two ants collide with each other, they both turn around and continue moving in the opposite directions. How much time at most would it take until all ants fall off the stick?

Imagine the ants are just dots moving along the stick. Now it looks looks like all dots keep moving in their initially chosen directions and just occasionally pass by each other. Therefore it will take no more than a minute until they fall off the stick. If any of them starts at one end of the stick and moves towards the other end, then the time it will take for it to fall off will be exactly 1 minute.

Get from START to FINISH in this “Bad Idea” maze, created by David Modray.

The solution is shown below.

## Prisoners and a Bulb

There are 100 prisoners in solitary cells. There is a central living room with one light bulb in it, which can be either on or off initially. No prisoner can see the light bulb from his or her own cell. Everyday the warden picks a prisoner at random and that prisoner visits the living room. While there, the prisoner can toggle the light bulb if he wishes to do so. Also, at any time every prisoner has the option of asserting that all 100 prisoners already have been in the living room. If this assertion is false, all 100 prisoners are executed. If it is correct, all prisoners are set free.

The prisoners are allowed to get together one night in the courtyard and come up with a plan. What plan should they agree on, so that eventually someone will make a correct assertion and they will be set free?

First the prisoners should elect one of them to be a leader and the rest – followers. The first two times a follower visits the living room and sees that the light bulb is turned off, he should turn it on; after that he shouldn’t touch it anymore. Every time the leader visits the living room and sees that the light bulb is turned on, he should turn it off. After the leader turns off the lightbulb 199 times, this will mean that all followers have already visited the room. Then he can make the assertion and set everyone free.

## Merlin and Hermes: Mysterious Lines

Two adventurers, Merlin and Hermes, approached a large iron door built into a cliff face.”Well…”, said Hermes, “What do we do now?”. Merlin produced an old, large piece of crumpled paper from his pocket. “Hrm…”, Merlin mumbled. “It says here that we must speak the six letter keyword to open the door and enter the secret chamber, but I don’t remember seeing any signs as to what that keyword might be…”

After a bit of searching, Hermes notices something etched into the ground. “Come over here!”, he yelled, pointing frantically. And sure enough, barely visible and obscured by dust, was a series of lines of different colors etched into the ground:

“Ah”, Merlin said, “So that is the keyword.” Hermes was lost and confused. After staring at it for another thirty seconds, he grumbled “What keyword!? All I see is a bunch of lines!”. Merlin simply responded, “You’re just looking at it the wrong way. It’s obvious!”

Isn’t it?

Source: Puzzling StackExchange

The signs are engraved letters on the ground and Merlin and Hermes are looking at them from above (the italic “looking at it the wrong way” is a hint). The darker a part from some sign is, the farther from the ground it is. The only letters which could correspond to this description are U – N – L – I – N – K. Therefore the keyword is “UNLINK”.