Securing the Box

There are 5 people who possess a box. You are allowed to secure the box with as many different locks as you like and distribute any combination of keys for these locks to any people among the 5. Find the least number of locks needed, so that no 2 people can open the box, but any cannot people can open it.

For every subset of 2 people you pick among the 5, there should be a lock which none of the 2 can unlock, and each of the remaining 3 people can unlock. Clearly, the lock in question cannot be the same for any two different subsets of 2 people you choose. Therefore the number of locks you need is at least the number of different 2-element subsets of a 5-element set, which is 5!/(2!3!)=10. This number is sufficient as well – just give keys to a different group of 3 people for every lock.

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