SelfDescribing Number
Find all 10digit numbers with the following property:
 the first digit shows the number of 0s in the number
 the second digit shows the number of 1s in the number
 the third digit shows the number of 2s in the number, and so on
Let the number be ABCDEFGHIJ. The number of all digits is 10:
A + B + C + D + E + F + G + H + I + J = 10
Therefore, the sum of all digits is 10. Then:
0Ã—A + 1Ã—B + 2Ã—C + 3Ã—D + 4Ã—E + 5Ã—F + 6Ã—G + 7Ã—H + 8Ã—I + 9Ã—J = 10
We see that F, G, H, I, J < 2. If H = 1, I = 1, or J = 1, then the number contains at least 7 identical digits, clearly 0s. We find A > 6 and E = F = G = 0. It is easy to see that this does not lead to solutions, and then H = I = J = 0.
If G = 1, we get E = F = 0. There is a 6 in the number, so it must be A. We get 6BCD001000, and easily find the solution 6210001000.
If G = 0, F can be 0 or 1. If F = 1, then there must be a 5 in the number, so it must be A. We get 5BCDE10000. We don’t find any solutions.
If F = 0, then the number has at least five 0s, and therefore A > 4. However, since F = G = H = I = J = 0, the number does not have any digits larger than 4, and we get a contradiction.
Thus, the only solution is 6210001000.
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