Raise Me None

Raise me none and I am unbeaten.
Raise me once and I am excessive.
Raise me twice and I am forward.
Raise me thrice and I am eaten.
All said right, but wrongly spelled.

Who am I?

The answer is the NUMBER 2:

2⁰ = 1 (“one”), which is unbeaten;
2¹ = 2 (“too”), which is excessive;
2² = 4 (“fore”), which is forward;
2³ = 8 (“ate”), which is eaten.

Envelopes with Numbers

You are given 2 sealed envelopes with numbers inside. You are told that one of the numbers is twice as much as the other one. You grab one of the envelopes and right before you open it, you make the following calculation:

“If this envelope contains X inside, then the other envelope contains either X/2 or 2X inside. Since the chance that the other envelope contains a larger number is exactly 50%, the expected money I will get after switching is X/4 + X = 1.25X > X. Therefore, I should switch!”

Clearly, this reasoning is wrong, since you can’t possibly deduce which envelope of the two contains a larger number. Where is the mistake?

The trick is that conditionally on the fact that your envelope contains X, it is not true that the other envelope has 50% chance of containing either X/2 or 2X. The reason is that it is impossible that all amounts of dollars appear in the envelopes with the same probabilities (densities). Thus, for example, if it is very unlikely that an envelope contains more than 1000, and you open an envelope with 800 inside, you will not think that the other envelope has 50% chance of containing 1600.

Beautiful Tapestry

A piece of a beautiful tapestry is missing. Can you figure out what its colors are?

The tapestry represents the factorizations of the numbers from 2 to 26.

Each 12×12 square on the tapestry represents a number between 2 and 26, such that all squares representing prime numbers are painted in single colors. The colors of the squares representing composite numbers are determined by the factors of these numbers.

The number 2 is represented by orange color (top left corner). The number 3 is represented by green color. The number 4 = 2×2 is represented once again by orange (2, 2) color. The number 5 is represented by red color. The number 6 = 2×3 is represented by orange (2) and green (3) colors. The number 7 is represented by blue color. The number 8 = 2×2×2 is represented once again by orange (2, 2, 2) color. The number 9 =3×3 is represented once again by green (3, 3) color. The number 10 = 2×5 is represented by orange (2) and red (5) colors, and so on.