Two moms, Sarah and Courtney, are talking to each other.

Sarah: I have two children.

**What is the probability that both of Sarah’s children are boys?**

Courtney: Me too! Do you have any boys?

**What is the probability that both of Courtney’s children are boys?**

Sarah: Yes, I do! What is your younger child?

**What is the probability that both of Sarah’s children are boys?**

Courtney: It is a boy. He is so mischievous!

**What is the probability that both of Courtney’s children are boys?**

Sarah: Is he Sagittarius? Sagittarius boys are known to drive their mothers crazy. I can testify from personal experience.

**What is the probability that both of Sarah’s children are boys?**

Courtney: No, but actually I have the opposite personal experience to yours.

**What is the probability that both of Courtney’s children are boys?**

Sarah: Well, I guess astrology does not always get it right.

Courtney: I assume it does about half of the time.

The answers are: ~1/4, ~1/4, ~1/3, ~1/2, ~23/47, 1.

Explanation:

Initially, we do not have any information about the children and therefore the chance that both of them boys is 1/2 × 1/2. This applies to the first and the second question.

After Sarah says that she has at least one boy, there are equal possibilities that she has Boy + Boy, Boy + Girl, or Girl + Boy. Therefore, the chance that both children are boys is 1/3.

After Courtney says that her younger child is a boy, the only remaining question is what is the gender of her older child, and therefore the chance is 1/2.

The fifth exchange implies that Sarah has a Sagittarius boy. There are 23 combinations such that both children are boys and at least one of them is Sagittarius. There are 47 combinations such that at least one of the children is a Sagittarius boy. Therefore, the chance that both children are boys is 23/47.

Finally, Courtney says that her younger child, which is a boy, is not Sagittarius, but her personal experience with Sagittarius boys is positive. Therefore, her older child is a Sagittarius boy and the chance is 1.