During World War II, the mathematician Abraham Wald was asked to help with determining which parts of the allied forces' planes must be armored better. After examining the surviving American planes, he noticed that there were many holes in the fuselage, and very few in the engines. After careful thinking, he suggested that the armor on the engines must be improved. Why?
Abrahm Wald realized that the holes should have been distributed more evenly aross the planes. Therefore the planes which had more holes in the fuselage survived, while the planes which had more holes in the engines got destroyed.